Hip dysplasia is a congenital condition in which the acetabulum or socket is shallow. This creates under-coverage of the femoral head. The weight-bearing portion of the hip becomes overloaded as it is increasingly focused on a small area. In the setting of dysplasia the body compensates for the loss of bony coverage and forms more soft tissue (labrum). An enlarged labrum is called hypertrophic. Dysplastic patients typically present with a hypertophic labrum. Dysplasia can lead to hip instability, labral damage, and early-onset arthritis. Mild dysplasia can often be addressed arthroscopically by repairing the torn labrum and tightening the capsule around the joint. Severe dysplasia can be treated with correction of the mechanical and bony deformity through a procedure called a peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO).
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